A preposition is a word (or group of words; phrase) that shows position, direction, or how two words or ideas are related to each other.
Specifically; a preposition shows the relationship between its object and some other word in the sentence.
Ex 1: The caterpillar hung under the leaf of the tree.
Ex 2: The school is around the corner.
1. Prepositional Phrase
A prepositional phrase includes the preposition, the object of the preposition and the modifiers of the object.
Ex 1: Natasha’s friends ran away from the big caterpillar.
(prep: away from object: caterpillar modifier: big [the]
Ex 2: But Natasha enjoyed the critter with the furry coat.
Prep phrase: with the furry coat [functions as an adjective and modifies critter.]
* A prepositional phrase may function as an adjective or as an adverb.
2. Object of Preposition
A preposition never appears alone- it needs an object always.
The object of the Preposition may be modified by one or more adjectives.
Ex 1: The houses are near busy urban airports.
* Note- because prepositional phrases act as adjectives and adverbs, you can use them in your sentences to add description and to clarify action.
Ex 2: Were they talking to me?
Ex 3: Give the message to them.
Here is a list 50 common prepositions:
above below during off to
across beneath except on toward
after beside for onto under
about behind from opposite underneath
against besides in out until
along between inside outside up
among beyond into over upon
around but like past with
at by near since within
before down of through without
Prepositions consisting of more than one word are called compound prepositions.
according to by means of instead of
ahead of in addition to next to
aside from in back of on account of
as of in front of on top of
because of in place of out of
*Because prepositions have different meanings, using a particular preposition will affect the way other words in a sentence relate to one another.
Ex.1 The parade passed (near, by, in front of, behind, opposite) City Hall
Ex. 2 I need to go to the store for my mom for she ran out of milk.